August 2016

Mammal general themes and classification

by Ghanshyam Kalathia, Zdravka Hristova

We as a small international group of homeopaths and students try to elicit and learn one group of remedies every year. Our focus last year was Mammals. We would like to share the outcome of this study.

When we went through the list of Mammal remedies, it was a surprise to find that, although we used Mammal remedies routinely in our practice, we did not know much about them, despite the fact that in our materia medica there are good provings of nearly seventy Mammal remedies.

For example, in the Cervidae family we have 6-7 deer remedies, but in general we only prescribe one, Moschus. We know very little about the other remedies because of our lack of collective knowledge of Deer as a group.

A proving is not enough to understand any specific remedy, we need to understand the substance and the themes or characteristics of the substance’s deeper pattern. In this series of articles we will study some common themes of subgroups, and through this develop an understanding of the deeper pattern of several members of the subgroups in detail.  

We hope that it will help you in your practice and ultimately in the mission of healing.


- Mammals as a group

Mammals are a group of vertebrates that possess mammary glands in females, which produce milk for the nourishment of young. They are the most evolved and intelligent creatures of the Animal kingdom.

Mammal remedies are derived from a vast diversity of animate sources, including human, horse, cat, lion, dolphin, goat, elephant, monkey, kangaroo, camel, and even bats. As a group, these remedies focus on issues of self-worth, dependence, competition, attractiveness, nurturing, hierarchy, territory, group acceptance, jealousy, performing and suffering wrongful acts, and, in our patients, the split between the animal and human side of one's nature. By examining Mammal families and a few of their more prominent members, both the common and individualizing mammal themes become readily apparent. What has emerged from comparison centers around dependence and independence, nurturing and lack of nurturing, a feeling of having suffered wrong and the suppression of natural instincts in order to harmonize with the group to which one belongs. Each mammal will express these themes in its own way.

- Essential themes of mammals
1. Need to belong to a group

  • Strong desire to belong to a group, except in some of the felids, fox etc. In patients, this aspect is seen as an intense need and dependency on friends, family, community, etc., and a fear of being expelled from the group.
  • Feel safe and secure within the group
  • The stability of a group provides them with a sense of security, which means they have to follow the norms of the group at all cost.
  • Conflict between their own desire and group’s rules and norms

Patient’s expressions

  • Herd
  • Community
  • Society
  • Social animal
  • Belong to a group
  • Included
  • Excluded
  • Expelled
  • Safe in a group

2. Issue of hierarchy

  • The hierarchy and fight for supremacy within the group is the strongest issue among the mammals. In patients, this is seen as an issue of 'Superiority and Inferiority'.
  • Fight for the dominant position, for example leader, manager, head of a family, being a mother-in-law (especially in Indian culture) etc. They have an intense desire to be superior or to maintain a dominant position by not allowing anyone to “boss” over them.

Patient’s expressions

  • Hierarchy
  • High rank
  • Low rank
  • Superior
  • Inferior

3. Strong maternal instinct

  • Mammals and especially females have a natural instinct for the nourishment of young. This aspect is also expressed as needing motherly care and love, warmth, nurturing as a young one, and on the side of the mother, an extreme anxiety about (her) children.

Patient’s expressions

  • Motherly love
  • Warmth
  • Nurturing
  • Anxiety about children

4. Other common issues

  • Issues related to lactation and menses
  • Breast heaviness or painfulness before, during or after menses
  • Symptoms related to function of ovary or hormonal disturbances
  • Playfulness
  • Fear of snakes
  • Headache

- Classification of Mammals

The classification is according to Rajan Sankaran’s Vital Quest software, natural histories of synergy software (KHA) and  website by Jörg Wichmann.

We have made this classification as easy as possible, and there is still room to make changes and add more mammalian members.

  • Class mammalia has three main subclasses (1) Protheria – Egg laying mammals (2) Metathera – Pouch bearing mammals (3) Eutheria – Placental mammals
  • Class, Subclass, Order and Suborder written in BOLD UPPERCASE
  • Superfamily, Family, Subfamily written in Italics Lowercase Underline
  • Classification is written in this order…… Substance – Species name – Scientific name (Abbreviation)
  • A medicine prepared from the same substance but a different species is written on a separate line and with one indent.
  • Only substances which have been prepared as homeopathic medicines by any homeopathic pharmacy worldwide are mentioned here.
  • A substance written in bold has available materia medica or a proving.
  • There is information on 136 substances and more than 60 sarcode remedies. This gives us plenty of information on mammals but still is not complete.

Within this list, there are 68 mammals and more than 20 sarcode remedies which have good materia medica and proving information.

  • There is a great deal we don’t know or only partially know about mammals. If you would share your suggestions or any additional information or cured cases we would be pleased to hear from you. We are keen to know more and always ready to discuss and share our knowledge, experience and development - let’s grow the system together. You can contact us here…




  • Echidna – Tachyglossus aculeatus (Tachy-a)
  • Platypus



  • Kangaroo – Lac Macropus Giganteus (Macrop-g)
  • Koala – Phascolarctos cinereus (Phas-c)
  • Opossum – Didelphis Virginiana (Did-v)



Family Bovidae

  • Goat – Capra hircus/ Lac caprinum (Lac-cpr)
  • Mountain Goat (Chamois) – Lac rupicaprinum (Lac-rupi)
  • Alpine ibex – Capra ibex (Capr-i)
  • Sheep – Lac ovis/ Ovis ammon aries (Lac-o)
    • Lana ovis (Sheep’s wool) (Lana ovis)
  • Antelope – Impala – Aepyceros melampus (Aepc-m)
    • Springbok – Antidorcas marsupialis (Antid-m)
    • Blue wildebeest – Connochaetes taurinus (Conn-t)
    • Common Eland – Taurotragus oryx (Tauro-o)
  • Yak – Bos mutus (Bos-m)
  • Cow – Lac defloratum/ Bos primigenius taurus (Lac-d)
    • Lac vaccinum (Lac-v)
    • Fel Tauri (Ox’s gall bladder) (Fel)
  • Buffalo – American wild Buffalo – Lac Bisonis/ Bison bison (Bison-b)
    • Asiatic domestic water buffalo – Bubalus bubalis/ Lac bubali/ Lac buffalo (Lac-bubal)
    • African Buffalo – Syncerus caffer (Sync-c)

Family Camelidae

  • Camel – Lac cameli dromedarii /Camelus dromedarius (Camelu-d)
    • Bactrian Camel – Camelus bactrianus (Camelu-b)
  • Lama – Lac glama (Lama-g)
  • Alpaca – Lac alpaca/ Lama pacos (Lac-alp)
    • Alpaka Fleece – Lama pacos / Pel paceris (Lama-p-pel)

Family Cervidae

  • Deer – Musk Deer – Moschus (Mosch)
    • Brazilian Deer – Cervus brasilius (Cerv)
    • European Deer – Cervus elaphus (Cerv-e)
    • Fallow Deer – Dama dama (Dama)
    • White tailed Deer – Odocoileus virginianus borealis (Odoc-v)
    • Roe deer – Capreolus capreolus (Capre-c)
  • Dippel’s Oil – Olium animali (Ol-an)
  • Reindeer – Rangifer tarandus/ Lac rangiferi (Rang-t)
  • Moose – Alces alces / Lac alcesum (Lac-alc)

Family Giraffidae

  • Giraffe – Giraffa camelopardalis (Giraf-c)

Family Hippopotamidae

  • Hippopotamus – Hippopotamus amphibius (Hippop)

Family Suidae

  • Pig – Sus scrofa domestica / Lac suis (Lac-s)
    • All pig based sarcodes
  • Wild Boar – Sus Scrofa (Sus)

ORDER CETACEA (Cetaceans are evolved from ARTIODACTYLA)

  • Baleen whales (Mysticeti)
    • Blue Whale – Balaenoptera musculus (Bal-m)
    • Northern Minke Whale – Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Bal-a)
    • Humpback Whale – Megaptera novaeangliae (Megap-n)
  • Toothed Whales (Odontoceti)
    • Sperm Whale – Physeter catodon/ Ambra grisea (Ambr)
    • Killer Whale/ Orca – Orcinus orca (Orc-o)
    • Dolphin – Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphin – Tursiops truncatus / Lac delphinium (Lac-del)
    • Amazon River Dolphin – Inia geoffrensis/ Delphinus (Del)



Family Canidae

  • Dog – Lac can/ Canis familiaris (Lac-c)
    • Lyssin (Lyss)
    • Excrementum caninum (Excr-can)
  • Gray Wolf – Lac lupinum/ Canis lupus (Lac-lup)
  • Coyote – Canis latrans (Cani-l)
  • Black-backed Jackal – Canis mesomelas (Canis-m)
  • Red Fox – Sanguis Vulpes/ Vulpes vulpes (Vulp-v)
    • Pulmo vulpes (Pulm-v)

Superfamily Musteloidea

(1) Family Mephitidae

  • Skunk – Mephitis putorius (Meph)

(2) Family Mustelidae

  • Otter Small-clawed Otter – Aonyx cinerea (Aony-c)
    • Eurasian Otter – Lutra lutra (Lut-l)
  • Beech Marten – Martes foina (Mart-f)
  • Badger – Meles meles (Meles-m)
  • Weasel – Stoat – Mustela ermine (Must-e)
    • Ferret – Mustela putorius furo (Muste-p)

(3) Family Procyonidae

  • Raccoon – Procyon lotor (Procy-l)

Family Ursidae

  • Brown Bear – Ursus arctos/ Lac ursinum (Ursus-a)
  • Grizzly Bear – Ursus arctos horribilis (Ursus-a-h)
  • Polar Bear – Ursus maritimus (Ursus-m)
  • Giant Panda – Ailuropoda melanoleuc (Ailu-m)

SUBORDER PINNIPEDIA (closely related to suborder caniformia)

  • True seal – Phoca vitulina /Lac phocae (Phoc-v)
  • Eared seal – Antarctic Fur Seal – Arctocephalus gazella (Arctoc-g)
    • South American sea lion – Otaria flavescens (Otar-f)
  • Walrus


Family Felidae

  • Tiger – Panthera tigris/ Sanguis tigris (Panth-t-s)
  • Lion – Panthera leo/lac leontis (Lac-l)
  • Jaguar – Panthera onca (Panth-o)
  • Leopard – Panthera pardus (Panth-p)
  • Snow Leopard – Panthera unica (Panth-u)
  • Cheetah – Acinonyx jubatus (Acin-j)
  • Puma – Puma concolor/ Lac puma (Puma)
  • Lynx – Canadian Lynx – Lynx canadensis (Lynx-c)
    • Bobcat – Lynx rufus (Lynx-r)
  • Ocelot – Leopardus pardalis (leopa-p)
  • Cat – Lac felinum/ Felis sylvestris domestica (Lac-f)

Family Hyenidae

  • Spotted Hyena – Crocuta crocuta (Crocu-c-p)
  • Striped Hyena – Hyaena hyaena (Hyaen-h)
  • Brown Hyena – Parahyaena Brunnea (Hyaen-b)

Family Herpestidae

  • Mongoose – African Meerkat- Suricata suricatta (Suri-s)
  • Banded mongoose – Mungos mungo (Mungo-m)
  • Marsh mongoose – Atilax paludinosus (Atil-p)


  • Common Vampire Bat – Desmodus rotundus (Desmo-r)
  • Black flying fox – Pteropus alecto (Pterop-a)
  • Mouse eared bat – Myotis myotis (Myo-m)
  • Indian Bat – Pipistrellus coromandra (Pipis-c)


  • Sloth – Pale-throated three-toed sloth – Bradypus tridactylus (Brady-t)
  • Linnaeus's Two-toed Sloth – Choloepus didactylus (Cholo-d)
  • Ant eater
  • Armadillo


  • Chinese Pangolin – Manis pentadactyla (Manis-p)


  • Mole – European Mole – Talpa europaea (Talpa)
    • Townsend's mole – Scapanus townsendii (Scapa-t)
  • Hedgehog – Erinaceus Europaeus (Erin-eu)
  • Alpine Shrew – Sorex alpines (Sorx-a)


  • Hare – Lepus  europaeus (Lep-eu)
    • Scrub hare – Lepus saxatilis (Lep-s)
  • Rabbit – Lac  Oryctolagus cuniculus (Oryc-c)
  • Pika – Ochotona princeps (Ochot-p)


  • White Rhinoceros – Ceratotherium simum (Cerato)
  • Tapir – Tapirus terrestris / Lac tapir (Lac-tap)
  • Donkey – Equus africanus asinus/ Lac asinum (Lac-as)
  • Horse – Equus  ferus caballus/ Lac equinum (Lac-eq)
    • Horse urine – Urinum equinum (Urin-eq)
    • Calculi of amniotic fluid – Hippomanes (Hipp)
    • Rudimentary Thumbnail – Castor equinum (Cast-eq)
  • Zebra


  • Monkey – Rhesus Monkey – Macaca rhesus / Lac rhesus (Lac-rhes)
    • Red Howler Monkey – Alouatta seniculus (Alou-s)
    • Geoffroy's spider monkey – Ateles geoffroyi (Atel-g)
    • Capuchin Monkey – Cebus apella (Cebu-a)
    • Vervet Monkey – Chlorocebus pygerythrus (Chloroc-p)
    • Chacma baboon – Papio ursinus (Papio-u)
  • Apes – Gorilla – Gorilla gorilla (Gori-g)
    • Chimpanzee – Pan Troglodytes/ Lac Pan Troglodytes (Lac-p-t)
    • Orangutan – Pongo pygmaeus (Pong-p)
  • Humans – Lac humanum (Lac-h)
    • Lac maternum (Lac-mat)
    • All metridonals
    • All human base sarcode


  • Elephant – Asiatic elephant – Elephas maximus (Lac-el)
    • African elephant – Lac loxodonta africana (Lac- lox-a)
    • Ivory of African elephant – Loxodonta africana / Ebur africanum (Lox-a)


  • Beaver – Castor canadensis/ Castoreum (Cast-c)
  • Dormouse – Glis glis (Glis-g)
  • Mice – House mouse – Mus musculus (Mus-m)
    • Wood mouse – Apodemus sylvaticus (Apode-s)
  • Rat – House rat – Rattus Rattus (Ratt-r)
    • Common rat – Rattus Norvegicus (Ratt-n)
  • Porcupine – Hystrix indica (Hystr-i)
    • Tree Porcupine – Sphiggurus spinosus (Sphigg)
  • Squirrel – Common Squirrel – Sciurus vulgaris (Sciu-v)
    • Alpine Marmot – Marmota marmota (Marm-m)
    • Siberian Chipmunk - Tamias sibiricus (Tami-s)
  • Guinea pig – Cavia porcellus (Cavia-p)
  • Golden hamster – Mesocricetus auratus (Mesoc-a)

Common vole – Microtus arvalis (Pel-mu)

Photos: Wikimedia Commons
Baby gorilla; Eric Kilby
Lama; Domenico Salvagnin
Polar Bear; Public domain
Zebra; Alf van Beem

Categories: Families
Keywords: mammals, themes, classification


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Posts: 20
Animal clasification
Reply #2 on : Fri August 19, 2016, 15:55:46
What a great work that you did. Thank you for giving such elaborated knoledge to us.
brahmbhatt kiran
Posts: 20
Reply #1 on : Sun August 14, 2016, 19:19:09
nice explanation by dr. ghanshyam sir
thank u for giving such nice and elaborated knowledge to us , in future serve us theses type of knowledge......